For the first time, stainless steel can be 3D-printed while maintaining its characteristics

For the first time, stainless steel can be 3D-printed while maintaining its characteristics

Graphical abstract from the research.

The authors were able to fine-tune the composition of the steel to find a set of compositions consisting just of iron, nickel, copper, niobium, and chromium that worked because they now had a good understanding of the structural dynamics during printing as a reference.

“Composition control is truly the key to 3D-printing alloys. By controlling the composition, we are able to control how it solidifies. We also showed that, over a wide range of cooling rates, say between 1,000 and 10 million degrees Celsius per second, our compositions consistently result in fully martensitic 17-4 PH steel,” Zhang said.

The recent work might be influential beyond 17-4 PH steel as well. The information obtained from the XRD-based method might be used to develop and test computer models intended to forecast the quality of printed items in addition to optimizing other alloys for 3D printing.

“Our 17-4 is reliable and reproduceable, which lowers the barrier for commercial use. If they follow this composition, manufacturers should be able to print out 17-4 structures that are just as good as conventionally manufactured parts,” Chen said.


Fusion-based additive manufacturing technologies enable the fabrication of geometrically and compositionally complex parts unachievable by conventional manufacturing methods. However, the non-uniform and far-from-equilibrium heating/cooling conditions pose a significant challenge to consistently obtaining desirable phases in the as-printed parts. Here we report a martensite stainless steel development guided by phase transformation dynamics revealed by in-situ high-speed, high-energy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction. This developed stainless steel consistently forms desired fully martensitic structure across a wide range of cooling rates (102–107 ℃/s), which enables direct printing of parts with a fully martensitic structure. The as-printed material exhibits a yield strength of 1157 ± 23 MPa, comparable to its wrought counterpart after precipitation-hardening heat treatment. The as-printed property is attributed to the fully martensitic structure and the fine precipitates formed during the intrinsic heat treatment in additive manufacturing. The phase transformation dynamics guided alloy development strategy demonstrated here opens the path for developing reliable, high-performance alloys specific for additive manufacturing.

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